Fistulectomy surgery is the process of removal of Fistula from your body using a surgical technique. Fistula is an unusual part of our body that gets created due to infections, inflammation, injury, or surgery. It is like a tube connection between two parts of the body. This can happen near any body parts, and it has a lot of features. But Anal Fistulectomy is usually referred to as Fistulectomy surgery. A fistula is just a tube between two hollow parts. In most cases, it is a disease, but sometimes it is also deliberately created for therapy. When there is kidney failure, Fistula is purposefully created in the arm to let ease in the withdrawal of blood for haemodialysis.
It can get created in various body parts:
- Eyes, ears, adnexa, and mastoid process diseases
- Circulatory system issues
- Digestive system diseases
- Respiratory system diseases
- Connective tissue and musculoskeletal system diseases
- Urogenital system diseases
- Congenital deformities, malformations,
- Chromosomal abnormalities
There are Various Possible causes for a Fistula:
Inflammatory bowel diseases
Severe stage-3 hidradenitis suppurativa
- Medical treatments:
Voluntarily created Arteriovenous fistulas
Gallbladder surgery complications and effects
Abscesses in the appendix
Loss in blood supply to the tissues of the bladder and the vagina
Prolonged obstructed labor
Rape or gang rape
There are various types of Fistula depending on the types of development. Some are not fully developed, some have half tracts, and some are old developed and have branches in them. All of these are formed in tube formations only, but they differ shapes, sizes, and numbers.
Types of Fistula:
- Blind: It has only one open ending, as the other opening might have blended
- Complete: It can have an internal and external opening
- Incomplete: It may not connect to any internal organ
The most common form of this disease is Anal Fistula. When anal glands get blocked, and abscess starts to develop near those glands. Then it goes on to grow and develop over the skin near the anus. When this grows fully, it creates a tubelike tract, which is the fistula. This tract needs to be removed, as it can hurt your day to day life, and the existence of an Anal Fistula is a sign of issues in the digestive process. Before it gets out of control, your infections, inflammation, or injury needs to be healed, for a better life.
- Odor Originating from the anus
- Bloody pus
- Drainage of pus
- Potential for infection if stool passes through the anal fistula
The treatment procedure of the fistula depends on the severity and the type of fistula. But in most cases, the treatment combines surgical treatment and antibiotic treatment. When the issue is first recognized, the fistula is analyzed. It’s tube and its shape and size are analyzed to get an idea of the kind of treatment required. Once the fistula is studied, the appropriate time of surgery is determined. In some cases, the fistula might be covered. Then the surgery should be done at the right age. When the fistula is examined, the surgery is scheduled. The surgery involves creating enough adequate drainage on the fistula for it to have enough space to drain the pus. The pus should be able to escape without forming an abscess. This helps in draining and hence removing all the Fistula in your body. During this surgery, the anal fistula is analysed using the method of anoscopy.
Fistulectomy is considered less effective than Fistulectomy. In Fistulectomy, the tract is removed. Whereas, in Fistulectomy, the track is laid open and healed. Fistulectomy can take about 6 weeks for recovery. The surgery is performed under the effect of general anaesthesia in a hospital. Once the surgery is completed, it will be analysed if there are any complications.
The possible complications are:
- Post-operative pain
- Recurrence of fistula
As long as there are no complications, the patient can immediately go home. After going home as well, there might be minor inconveniences for a few days, but that is normal. The surgery organ needs to be taken care of after the surgery as well. It should get the proper care.
Care during Recovery:
- Patients must rest
- Soak in warm baths (three times a day)
- Change gauze frequently to keep the area clean
Benefits of Fistulectomy surgery:
- A Fistulectomy is a better alternative of treating the fistula than Fistulectomy, as it has more assurance than the other as it only assures temporary healing.
- A Fistulectomy is considered as a better solution as this method follows the removal of the fistula, which assures no recurrence. It cleans and clears the glans that caused the fistula. Hence, the regrowth is stopped.
- It leaves the healthy tissues for it to granulate.
- It has long term healing effects.
Once your Fistulectomy surgery is completed, you also need to take care of your health by yourself. Though the surgery assures no recurrences, it can only be followed by proper health care. The assurance is only about that fistula, but the body can create an all-new fistula if it still has similar harms as before. Depending on your cause of the disease, you should avail proper help to make sure this does not happen again. If you and your doctor have understood what caused this complication, you could take preventive measures for it to not happen again at a new place.
- Take care of your digestive system. If any irregularity is found, talk to a doctor. Early detection of the health issue might help you prevent the creation of the fistula.
- Follow a healthy lifestyle that helps you prevent health issues.
- Preventing extremely harmful edibles if you observe it is affecting your body.
If you are going to get your fistula treated to weigh all the pros and cons of your preferred method. Make sure you take equally good aftercare as you do while doing the surgery. Keep maintaining a healthy daily routine for after-surgery care. We hope this information was of help.